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Par M. Shermin Movaffaghi, psychologue FAPSE spécialisé en musicothérapie ASMT

Musicotherapy and the personal development

Click to zoom the imageThe musicothérapie is a very old discipline which consists in using the therapeutic effects of the sound interactions in seen to improve the quality of life (ritual, healers, etc.)
In its modern acceptance, the musicothérapie is regarded as a therapeutic approach which makes it possible to carry out an in-depth work on the emotions through the "not-verbal channel".
Thus it is often used in assumption of responsibility which supports the free expression of the patient. In addition, the music being closely related to motricity and the movement, the musicothérapie can also be indicated at the time of rehabilitations and rehabilitations. From its gasoline, this approach thus allows: - the development and acquisitions of new driving competences - the development of the cognitive functions such as the memory or the attention - an in-depth emotional work - the knowledge of the unconscious mechanisms. - the personal development
Center JAM offers the possibility of musicothérapie for a personal work (individual) or  group. For additional information you can contact us with the following address:

Bref historique

Prehistory at our days, humanity accompanied its evolution by sound productions. The ritualisation of these events was at the origin of the music which became a social exchange and mean of communication. As of high antiquity, the music was used like emotional means of expression while being based on the representations of psyché human. Thus of great civilizations such as Egypt, Perse, China and Greece introduced the virtues of the music into their medical sciences. In occident, it is necessary to wait the 19th century to see Pinel quoting the example of a patient for whom the discovery of the practice of the violin plays an essential part in its re-establishment. The music is then regarded as a means to calm, stimulate or drive out the pathogenic ideas of the patients. The advent of the psychoanalysis at the 20th century will fully give to the music its therapeutic contribution. Thus an Argentinian psychoanalyst in the name of R. Benenzon proposes a first model of the musicothérapie while being based on the psychoanalytical model (Benenzon 1962). It should be said that the approach of this pioneer still refers in practice of the musicothérapie which strongly bound with the concepts freudiens. Thereafter, the Anglo-Saxon countries introduced the music into the behavioral therapies under positive reinforcement, or its deprivation, with that of negative reinforcement. Thus, for example, J Alvin, promotrice of the musicothérapie in Great Britain used these techniques of conditioning with children psychotics, practical which is always in hand. It is also necessary to note a whole series of literature concerning the passive listening of the music and the physiological reactions of the organization such as the galvanic reactions psycho or the concentrations of blood hormones.

Some Reserches

Effect of the music on the hormones of the stress: Many research highlight the effects of the music on the hormones in situations of surgery, anaesthesia or dentistry. In one of the first research, Spintegh (1985) highlights the effect of a releasing music on the pulsation, the blood pressure, the concentration of growth hormones GH, the concentration of ACTH and the concentration of prolactin in the blood plasma. This research highlighted significant differences following dental surgery: "a significant reduction in the rate of heartbeat of the group having received a music releasing during the dental operation" a significant reduction in the blood pressure "a significant reduction in the growth hormone. In another research, the effect of a releasing music was studied on the concentration of the corticol and noradrenalin. In this study, 30 patients were placed in 2 groups of 15; a group controls and an experimental group. The experimental group profited from the releasing music. The results highlighted, a significant reduction in the noradrenalin and cortisol rate in the experimental group and an hour after the operation like during the time of recovery
Stoner (1990) observed in a clinical way that the use of a releasing music made it possible to decrease in a significant way the anguish of the operation. It thus could highlight which the effect is observable only if the music is connoted positively by the patients. This study highlights the importance of the musical choice and its subjective dimension. Schorr (1993) highlighted the effect of the music on the felt pain. It could check at the suffering female subjects of disorders of an articular nature, a significant reduction in the brought back pain. In same optics, Magill and Levreault (1993) highlighted the role of the musicothérapie in the reduction in the pain and its consequences and proposed the musicothérapie like therapeutic against the pain. Other researchers could highlight an improvement of the assumption of responsibility of intensive care in musical condition. Good could show (1995) in a study experimental, the analgesic effect of the music following operations gastric. The results highlighted at 89% of the subjects a reduction in the postoperative gastric pains following musical listening. Since the Nineties, one attends research tasks of inspiration neurocognitive and medical which try to highlight the effects of the musicothérapie in margin of other conventional therapies. Thus a méta analyzes (J Silverman, 2003) significantly highlights (d=+0.71) a reduction in symptomatology among patients psychotics. In addition, another méta analyzes (Pfeiffer H, Wunderlich S, Bender W, Elz U, Horn B, 1997) shows that the assets in musicothérapies are lost after one 6 months period of stop of the therapy.
A study undertaken to Taiwan (Tang W, Yao X, Zheng Z, 1994) highlighted among schizophrenic patients a reduction in the negative symptoms, a social increase in the interactions and a fall of insulation and a reduction in nerve sedative proportionings. A whole research plan is also devoted to the use of the music at the autists and a rating scale and diagnosis differential were validated per T Wigram (2000). Giles and Cogan (1991) studied the effect of 3 styles of musics (classical music, music of Walt Disney and electronic music) on children suffering from the disorders psychiatric. The body signs, the depressive symptoms and the hyperactivity of the children were studied. The results showed that the music of films of Disney had the best result on the children. Klein studied the effect the speed of the rate/rhythm on the reactions of 80 children whose group suffered from hyperactivity. Their behavior was studied in exercises of drawings and fine motricity. The conclusions highlight that a fast rate/rhythm increases the error rate in the hyperactive children while a "soft" rate/rhythm brings closer their performance those of the other children.
To finish, a whole research plan was devoted these last years to the effects of the music on the disorders of mood and emotional. Reinhardt and Lange (1982) studied the effect of the various musical forms like the waltz of Chopin and the concertos of piano of Mozart on the patients presenting a depressive disorder. The results could highlight which the listening of the selected music allowed a reduction in depressive symptomatology and a motivationnelle increase. Mikhailov, Monosoon and Co. (1990) studied the effect of the classical music compared with the rock'n'roll on patients depressive. The results of the questionnaires and the electroencephalogram highlighted the creation of negative feeling following the listening of the music rock'n'roll. Hanser (1990) developed a method which can stimulate the motivation of the old people suffering from depression. The patients learned how to use their favorite music in situation of listening in residence while combining listening with relieving and positive thought. The old patients from 65 to 74 years were subjected during 8 weeks to this protocol. The results showed results differentiated according to patients'. Pickett (1991) highlighted an improvement of the forecast among female patients suffering from major depression associated an alcoholic dependence following the listening of a selected music and from positive reinforcement. In short, all these studies highlight the benefits of the musicothérapie and agree to saying that it allows the opening of other channels of communication at the patient having relational difficulties on the verbal level. However these studies are impermeable with the analysis even of methods used in musicothérapies. For example, the clinical assets show that the rhythmic structure seems paramount in the approach of the patients psychotics or that the latter are deeply affected by sound stimulations not having a pulsatory structure. Recent studies (Ivry, 1993) highlighted temporal difficulties of integration of intervals among the autists and patients psychotics by suggesting the role of the cerebellum.
Consequently, it appears obvious that in order to include/understand the mechanisms brought into play in the sound interactions in musicothérapie, we have need for new models integrating the various musical variables and this in correlation with the characteristics of a clinical population. Moreover all this research does not hold account of the cultural aspects of the music. The clinical experiment in musicothérapie often shows that there is not musical receipt or of precise correspondence between a music and a produced state. How often says it S. Ventura, it there not "of aspirin effect in music"! As we will further see it with the notion of Hal, the important thing in musicothérapie is "here and now" and that each sound with a significance different according to its context and lived from the person.
texte: Shermin Movaffaghi
            psychologue FAPSE spécialisé en   
            musicothérapie ASMT

Copyright 2008. Shermin Movaffaghi,psychologue-musicotherapeute FAPSE ASMTlast update: Wednesday, April 05, 2017